Contingency or management reserve
is an amount the consultant or the contractor may want to include the unexpected
resources that may be overlooked or tasks that may have to be redone because they
might not work for the first time. Contingency provision is to cover the elements
of unforeseen minor changes in the technical and design specification.
strategies considered before the execution of the project are pre-project evaluation,
sources of finance, qualities of the project, planning helps for the successful
project implementation. The other major focal points of project management are
cost estimation. Cost estimates, work break down structure and project schedules
are interrelated concepts. Once a base line schedule is prepared it is necessary
to develop a base line budget.
is important to note that the cost of a work package cannot be estimated because
it is too complex and it must be broken down so that appropriate estimate can
be made. The initial cost estimate can seal the project fate. If the project cost
is over estimated, i.e. unrealistically high then the project may be lost. Accurate
cost estimation is difficult task in project management, because it is done in
the early planning stages. It is necessary to put practical constraints on project
costs so that realistic budgets can be established.
following elements would typically constitute the ingredients of most cost estimates.
Resource required for the project.
§ Overheads in the technology.
§ Profitability from the project.
and scheduling function are one of the important aspects in project management
system. A schedule is a timetable for a plan and therefore cannot be established
until the plan has been developed Information technology projects require proper
project management discipline in order to collect system requirements, design
systems and adequately trained users. When network-planning techniques are used,
scheduling depends on the planning function.
projects for which there is a high degree of uncertainty about the activity duration
estimates, it is possible to use three duration estimates, an optimistic, a pessimistic,
and the most likely. The project schedule control process involves regularly gathering
data on project performance, comparing with the planned performance. An inchoate
screening of a project idea bequeaths several insights for an in depth investigation.
to scrutinize further the project proposal. Hence there is a need to conduct a
feasibility study and need to estimate the cost of such detailed study. The study
is conducted quite exhaustively by exploring many factors related to the project.
The budget should tell how the money would be spent over the particular period.
In preparing a budget for a project it is necessary to consider the administrative
aspects of the project also.
Identification of investment opportunities.
2. Submission of proposal.
4. Preparation of budget and appropriation.
objectives and policies guiding the project planning exercise must be articulated.
It is the practice in many organizations to prepare the pre project evaluation
Purpose of the project as per sanction.
§ Having a clear vision of project
§ Project approval and execution of the project.
Strategies of implementation.
§ Time schedule for the project.
Estimated cost of completion of the project.
§ Resource requirement.
Setting up an effective control and monitoring the progress of the project.