and control plans for individual promotion should be established. Implementation
planning must cover lead time and sell off time. Lead time is
the time necessary to prepare prior to launching it.
Evaluating the sales promotion Result
Evaluation is a
crucial requirement and yet, according to researches, evaluation of
promotional programs receives little attention. Even where an attempt
is made to evaluate a promotion, it is likely to be a superficial evaluation
and in terms of profitability is even less effective.
Manufacturers can use four methods to measure sales promotion effectiveness.
The most common method is to compare sales before, during and after
Suppose a company has a 6% market share in the pre-promotion period,
which jumps to 10% during the promotion, falls to 5% immediately after
the promotion, and raised to 7% after some time, consumer panel data
would reveal the kind of people who responded to the promotion and what
they did after the promotion. If more information is needed, consumer
survey can be conducted to learn how many recall the promotion, what
they thought of it, how many took advantage of it.
It is used to promote
brands, products, persons, places, idea, activities, organizations,
and even nations. Trade associations have used publicity to rebuild
interest in declining commodities such as eggs, milk, and potatoes.
Organizations have used publicity to attract attention or to counter
a poor image. Many nations are engaged in publicity practices to attract
attention from more tourists, foreign investments, and international
support. Publicity campaigns are conducted by a lot of organizations
today to promote the brand name of their products and services. Its
one way to gain the attention of the customers. However mere publicity
practices cannot bring you the expected revenues. The quality of the
product must necessarily match the expectations of the consumers.
In considering when
and how to go about product publicity campaigns, management should establish
the publicity objects, choose the publicity messages and vehicles that
will implement the publicity plan, and evaluate the publicity result.
Managements must be really very careful in choosing their publicity
messages. The messages should be delivered according to the target audience.
The message should also promote the benefits of the product.
the publicity objectives
It can contribute
in a number of ways to the overall promotion program. Publicity potential
contribution can be especially strong in the following circumstances.
· News worthiness
: Product with interesting features are the best candidates for publicity
· Stimulate for sales force and dealers: Publicity can help boost
sales force and dealer enthusiasm. Public awareness about a new product
before it is launched, will help the sales force sell it to retailers.
· Need for credibility: Publicity adds credibility by communicating
the message in as editorial context that will appeal to the customers.
· Small budget: publicity costs less than direct mail and media
advertisements. The smaller the companys promotion budget, the
case for using publicity to gain share of mind.
publicity messages and vehicles
The publicist next
identifies interesting features and benefits to tell about the product.
Suppose a relatively unknown college wants more public recognition,
the publicist will search for possible stories. Do any faculty members
have unusual course being taught? Are any interesting events taking
place on campus? Usually this search will uncover hundreds of stories
that can be fed to the press. The stories chosen should reflect the
image this college wants.
the publicity plan
requires care. Take the matter of placing stories in the media. A great
story is easy to place. But most stories are less than great and may
not get past busy editors. One of the chief assets of publicities is
their personal relationship with media editors. It requires extra care
when it involves staging special events such as testimonial dinners,
news conference and national contest. Publicities need a good head for
detail and for coming up with quick solutions when things go wrong.
Its a proven
fact that sales promotions yield a faster and an efficient response
in sales than advertising does, however the promotions should be designed
in a very effective and an attractive way. However the organization
should keep in mind that these promotions will not result in finding
new and long-term consumers as they are targeting deal prone consumers
who keep switching brands whenever they are available.
It does not attract
brand loyal consumers. Brand loyal consumers do not change their preferences
so easily and sales promotion campaigns cannot have that as a target.
They do not switch brands so easily as a result of competitive promotions
among their own competitors.
in sales promotion discussions, the management must concentrate on overall
marketing objectives and promotional objectives. It should encourage
the consumers to purchase in bulk; it should encourage first time users
to try their products and try to attract switchers from competitive
products, however attracting switchers should not be their prime goal.
The sales promotion
programs should also concentrate on the allocation of the amount of
incentives they would offer, the distribution of vehicles, the timing
of the promotions and the budgets for sales promotions. After a sales
promotion campaign is conducted, the organizers should analyze the results
of the campaign. It may not always be successful, however the organization
must find out what went wrong and where and should work on it as sales
promotions definitely yields a better result than advertising.
is the securing of free editorial space or times is the least utilized
of the major promotion tools, although it has great potential for building
awareness and preference in the market place.