Roles & Responsibilities of a Manager in an Organization
The three vital
determinants of team work are the leader subordinates and the
environment. These factors are interdependent. It is the leaders
responsibility to make the environment conducive to work. He studies
the employees individually and insists interest in them. By encouraging
the inquisitive employees and by prohibiting insidious elements, he
creates hygienic environment. He inculcates the sense of collectivism
in employees to work as a team. The resultant output will then be efficiency.
He is intermediary between the work groups and top management. They are called linking pins by rensis likert. As linking pins they serve to integrate the entire organization and the effectiveness depends on the strength of these linking pins. Leader shows personal consideration for the employees. As representatives they carry the voice of the subordinates to the to management.
LEADER IS AN APPROPRIATE COUNSELLOR
Quite often people in the work place need counseling to eliminate the emotional disequilibrium that is created sometimes in them. Leader removes barriers and stumbling block to effective performance. For instance, frustration that results from blocked need drive keeps an employee derailed or the working track. It is here the leader comes in, renders wise counsel, releases the employee of the emotional tension and restores equilibrium.
USES POWER PROPERLY
If a leader is to effectively achieve the goal expected of him, he must have power and authority to act in a way that will stimulate a positive response from the workers. A leader , depending on the situation , exercises different types of power , viz reward power and expert power. Besides the formal basis , the informal basis of power also have a more powerful impact on organizational effectiveness. No leader is effective unless the subordinates obey his orders. There fore, the leader uses appropriate power so that subordinates willingly obey the orders and come forward with commitment.
LEADER MANAGES THE TIME WELL
Times is precious and vital but often overlooked in management. There are three dimensions of time boss imposed time , system- imposed time and self imposed time . That are prominent in literature. Because the leader has through knowledge of the principle of time management such as preparing time charts, scheduling techniques, etc., he is in a position to utilize the time productively in the organization.
STRIVES FOR EFFECTIVENESS
Quite frequently the manager are work abolic and too busy with petty things to address to major details of effectiveness. To fill the gap, sometimes leaders throws his concerted efforts to bring effectiveness by encouraging and nurturing team work, by better time management and by the proper use of power. Further, leader provides and adequate reward structure to encourage performance of employees. Leader delegates authority where needed and invites participation where possible to achieve the better result. He also provides the workers with necessary resources. By communicating to workers what is expected of them, leader brings effectiveness to organization. The above functions of the leader are by no means comprehensive but they do suggest as to what leaders do generally.
MANAGING AND LEADING
Leading and managing are not synonymous. One popular way of distinguishing between managing and leading is brought out by the French terms dux and Rex. Dex is a leader and an activist, innovators and often an inspirational type and rex is a stabilizer or broker of manager. But more realistically, effective management required good leadership. Bennis had once commented, there are many institutions I know are very well managed but very poorly led. This statement crystal clearly demonstrates that the difference between managing, and leading is indeed a lot. Though a layman considers managing as a broad terms including leading function a behaviorist advances the following points to marshall the difference between these two leading and managing.
Managerial behavior implies the existence of a manager managed relationship. This relationship arises with in organizational context. Where as leadership can occur why where, it does not have to originate in the organization context. for example , a mob can have a leader but cannot have a manager. Further, is an organization, informal. Group have leader not managers.
SOURCES OF INFLUENCE
Another potential difference between leader and manager lies in their sources of influence. Authority is attached to the managerial position in the case of a manager: where as a leader may not have authority but can receive power directly from his followers. In other words, managers obtain authority from his followers. In rather pure terms, this is the difference between the formal authority theory and the acceptance theory of authority.
A Manger has command over all allocation and distributions of sanctions. For Example, manager has control over the positive sanctions such as promotion and awards for his task performance and the contribution to organizational objectives. Manager is also in a position to exercises the negative sanctions such as with holding promotions, or mistakes, etc. In a sharp contrast, a leader has altogether different type of sanctions to exercises and grant. He cans gerent or with hold access to satisfying the very purpose of joining the groups social satisfactions and related task rewards. These informal sanctions are relevant to the individual with belongingness or ego needs: where as the organizational sanctions granted or exercised by the managers are geared to the physiological and security needs of individual.
Another fundamental difference between managing and leading is the role continuance. A manager may continue in office as long as his performance is satisfactory and acceptable to the organization. In sharp contrast, a leader maintains his position only through the day to day wish to the followers.
REASONS FOR FOLLOWING
Though in both managing and leading followers become involved, the reasons may be different. People follow managers because their job description, supported by a system of rewards and sanctions, requires them to follow. Where as people follow leader on voluntary basis. Further, it there are no followers, leader no more exists. But, even if there are no followers, a manager may be there.
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