A good relational
database system should be capable of maintaining a good relationship
among the datas and generate new relations among the existing
datas in the database system. A database is said to be a relational
system, when the database system satisfies Codd twelve rules and relational
theory in algebra. In a relational database system there exist some
relationship among the stored datas, it is also possible to form
relations from the stored data with the help of relational algebra.
An important concept in relational schema design is that of a functional
dependency. Normalization theory is based on the functional notion of
functional dependency and moreover it helps in simplifying the structure
A functional dependency is a property of the semantics or meaning of
the attributes. The database designers will use their understanding
of the semantics of the attributes, how they relate to each one another.
Certain FDs can be specified without referring specific relation,
but as the property of those attributes. Functional dependency plays
a key role in establishing and maintaining a relationship among the
datas that are functionally related to one another and they are
separated from other non-related datas thus providing clear relationship
among the set of datas present.
Functional dependencies of the datas are verified and implied
in the second normal form. Normalization is basically used to eliminate
data redundancy and provide data integrity. Every datas in the
database will be stored in row and column format that is table format.
Axioms or rules of inference provide a simpler technique for reasoning
about functional dependencies. We can also use other rules to find the
logically implied functional dependencies. By applying these rules we
can easily identify the columns that are functionally dependent or not.
They are referred as inference rules as a whole.
1. Reflexivity rule.
2. Augmentation rule.
3. Transitivity rule.
4. Decomposition or projective rule.
5. Union or additive rule.
6. Pseudotransitive rule.
The reflexivity rule states that the set of attributes always determines
it self or any of its subsets. Augmentation rule states that adding
the same set of attributes to both the left and right hand sides of
a dependency result in valid dependency. All functional dependencies
are transitive in nature. The decomposition rule states that we can
remove attributes from the right hand side of the dependency applying
this rule repeatedly we can decompose into many relations. This collection
of rules is called as Armstrongs axioms. These axioms are strong
because they do not generate any incorrect dependencies, they are complete.
of datas are nothing but every non-key attribute is functionally
or fully dependent on the primary key. No non-key attribute exists in
the relation that is all the columns are components of the primary key.
What is a primary key? Primary key is basically used to avoid duplicate
values or datas in our parent table, moreover a parent table can
have only one primary key but we can assign a single primary key to
combination of columns, which is called a composite primary key.
For example a table called employee contains four columns namely empnumber
which is set as a primary key for this employee table, First name, Last
name, and company details. In this table the columns first name, last
name are related to the empnumber (employee details) that is each one
has relationship with others, with help of empnumber we can uniquely
identify the employee and view his details. But the fourth column gives
us information about the company it has no relationship with the primary
key (empnumber) of the employee table.
Hence this column should be segregated and it should be stored separately
in another table. Thus functional dependency helps in maintaining a
relationship among the datas present in the table. Any columns
that are not dependent on the primary of the parent table should be
segregated. Every column should be dependent on the primary key of the
parent table. Hence FDs are useful in maintaining relations and
deriving new relations among the datas and it also provides with